Fall Armyworm-Introduction, Life Cycle And Control Measures

Fall Armyworm

☑️Fall Armyworm(FAW) also known as American Fall Armyworm is voracious pest which commonly feeds on maize plant causing huge loss to crop production.

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FALL ARMYWORM

Fall armyworm has now emerged as one of the epidemic in agriculture and food sector.

Million hector of land where maize is cultivated has totally affected and destroyed by fall armyworm.

Not only maize, it also feeds on other crops like:-

✓Wheat
✓Paddy
✓Millet
✓Sugarcane
✓Sorghum
✓Cotton
✓Vegetables

    Origin Of Fall Armyworm

    Fally Armyworm  was first noticed in western hemisphere of America. We can say that fall armyworm was indigenous pests of America  and Canada. It was there for very long time.

    It is believed that, in 2016 America has exported large amount of corns to other parts of world especially to Africa.

     What happened there is, the eggs and larvae also get transported along with corns.

    Then it has travelled Africa, Iran and now it is affecting asian countries like China, India, Nepal etc.

    It spread very fast from one place to other. It almost feeds on whole maize plant. This worm can cause food scarcity in world.

    Life Cycle Of Fall Armyworm

    There are 4 stages in fall armyworm. These are:-

    ✔️Egg Stage:- Eggs are layed in clusters. There are about (50-200) eggs in a cluster. A adult female can lay up to 1000 eggs.

    ✔️Larval Stage:- Larval stage is voracious feeder. The main destroyer of crop is larval stage. It lasts for (14-22) days.

    ✔️Pupal Stage:- Larvae develops into pupae. It lasts for (8-30) days.

    ✔️Adult  Female:-Pupae develops into adult. Adult fall armyworm has wings and can fly long distance in short period of time and lay eggs in other place and in this way it can affects whole world. Adult female can lives up to 21 days.

     Crop Damaging Power Of Fall Armyworm

    Fall Armyworm is voracious feeder which feeds mainly on leaves including stems and cobs of maize.

    It feeds on almost 350 plant species. Its larvae is feeder. Once it develops, it generates wings and can fly large area within very less time.

    Maize is the second most cultivated crop in the world. So, it feeds billions of people. It  is also known as “Queen of cereals”.

    As maize feeds billion of people, so we can predict that the damage caused by fall armyworm can be the reasons of death of million of people.

    On an average, In land area of 1 acre maize production is about (20-25)Quintal. But due to attack of fall armyworm, it gets reduced (16-18) Quintal i.e. decrease production by (20-30)%.

    Identification Of Fall Armyworm

    ◾It has 4 dots in 8th segments, Inverted Y shape near head and white lines.

    ◾Fall armyworm lays eggs underneath the leaf and eggs are covered with white and grey things.

    ◾In early stage, larvae is white or light green and head is black.

    ◾Fall armyworm is active during evening and night.

    Symptoms Shown By Maize Plant

    ✓Leaves of maize are eaten by worm and there looks like net in leaves.

    ✓We can see many small holes in leaf of maize.

    ✓We can also see dust like that of wood on leaves.

    Control Measures

    Fall armyworm can empty our field is we don’t control it on time. There are 3  methods to control it which are:-

    1. Mechanical method

    🔹Tillage in filed should be in depth which takes out the larvae of worm.

    🔹Weeding should be done from time to time.

    🔹Inspection of corn field should be done every week.

    🔹We can collect fall armyworm in plastic and kill them with fire.

    2. Biological method.

    🔹Worm should be killed in larval stage.

    🔹Enemies of fall armyworm like bees, ants and birds should be preserved.

    🔹Time of plantation of maize should be shift little early or late.

    🔹Nitrogenous fertilizers should be applied in proper manner.

    🔹Biological pesticides like NPV/Baccilus thruingiesis should be applied.

    🔹Fall armyworm doesn’t like the smell of Desmodium grass. So, it should be planted in middle of corn field.

    🔹Similarly, female fall armyworm likes saint of the Napier grass. So, it should be planted at the edges of field.

    🔹Intercropping of peas and bean can control fall armyworm

    3.Chemical Methods

    🔹(3-5)ml of “Azadiractine  1500 PPM”should be mixed with 1 litre of water and should be applied to corn field in every 10 days.

    🔹Some of the chemical pesticides effective for the control of Fall armyworm are:-

    ✓Spinosad

    ✓Spinetoram

    ✓0.4 gm emamectin benzoate mixed with 1 litre of water.

    🔹Chemicals should be sprayed in cobs and mask and other protective equipment should be used while spraying chemicals.

    This is whole information on Fall Armyworm.

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    Also Read:-Baby Corn Farming, Benefits And Profits

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