Housing System Of Poultry-Types And Management

There are four housing system of poultry generally found to followed by different farms  all over the world. They are:- 
1.Free range or Extensive system.
2.Semi- Intensive System. 
3.Folding unit system. 
4.Intensive system.

    In this blog we are going to discuss all about Housing System Of Poultry-Types And Management in detail- So read the post till end.

    Housing System Of Poultry

    The four types of housing system in poultry are discussed below:-

    1.Free Range System

    In this System- Poultry birds can access to large space where they can walk and feed on grass and other insects.
    They are protected from predatory animals and infections diseases including parasitic infestation.
    🔸The poultry birds meet their food requirement from the surroundings. So feed cost is minimum. 
    🔸Elaborate housing is not required.
    🔸Rearing cost is minimum. 
    🔸There is the problem of not founding the eggs as the hen can lay them wherever they want.
    🔸Chance of attack from predators.
    🔸Poultry bird may suffer from different infectious disease and parasites

    2.Semi-Intensive System

    This system is adopted where limited free space is available. It is necessary to provide 20-30 sq.m. out side run per bird. 
    🔸Protection against predatory animals is possible. 
    🔸The birds gets the opportunity to move in the fresh ground. 
    🔸The run may get infested with the droppings. 
    🔸The poultry birds may be infected with infectious and contagious disease. 

    3.Folding Unit System

    In this system of housing birds are confined to one small run the position is changed each day. The change in position gives them opportunity to find and eat fresh herbage. 
    🔸Spreading to disease is minimum as the birds being confined to one small run. 
    🔸No fear of predatory animals. 
    🔸Labor cost is high 
    🔸Feeding watering and collection of eggs needs more time. 

    4.Intensive System

     In this system of housing- Poultry  birds are confined within a house with no access to land outside and it is usually adopted where land is limited and expensive. The types of intensive system of poultry housing are:-

    A.Battery Cage System

    In this system-Poultry birds are kept inside a cage where there is area that is fit for the bird that allows to stand and sit.
     Floor space provided in this system is 14×16 inches and the height, 17 inches.The floor of the cage is made up of galvanized wire tilting from back to front which helps to roll out the hatched egg outside the cage into a receiver. 
    There is provision of tray below the cage. The food and water required to poultry are kept outside the cage where there is access of poultry head only.
    🔸Cage system of rearing allows better flock supervision. 
    🔸The performance of each bird can be noted and culling is easily carried out as and when required
    🔸Vegetarian egg (i.e. Unfertile egg) may be produced as there is only one pullet in each cage. This egg can be preserved for a longer time than fertilized egg at ordinary temperature.
    🔸Cage system of rearing offers economy in space, reduce feed consumption and labor, help in prevention and control of certain disease like coccidiosis and increase the efficiency of production. 
    🔸Clean and uniform egg production throughout the year is possible. 
    🔸Cage fatigue is one of the problems. 
    🔸Malnutrition may be the problem, if the feeding of birds in cages in not carefully performed. 
    🔸The eggs produced by the hen keep in the egg can never be used for hatching purposes.
    🔸Feeding and watering requires more labor.
    🔸Housing and equipment cost per bird is high. 

    B.Deep Litter System

    In this system- There is made provision of litter(8-12)Inches which is made up of organic materials like rice husk, saw dust, cereal straw and dry leaves.
    This is the most common type of poultry housing in Asian country like India And Nepal.
    In this system birds are kept loose in a building where they are free to roam about.
     Litter material can be used after sun drying to reduce the moisture content to an optimum level of 6% uniform layering up of finely ground litter to a thickness of 15-22 cm favours better decomposition and dryness of litter by evaporation of droppings.
    Optimum temperature can be maintained either by increasing the thickness winter or reducing the thickness in summer. 
    Deep litter resembles to dry compost.

    Precautions In Deep Litter System

    1. The floor of the house should be 45 — 60 cm high from the ground level. Concrete floor is preferable.
     2. The birds should provided floor space 2 — 2.5 sq. ft. per bird in case of layers and 1 sq. ft. in case of broiler. 
    3. The floor should not be damped. 
     4. The house should be well ventilated. The house should be south facing as it aid well ventilation.
     5. The litter materials should be used in sufficient quantity to give a depth of 6 —8 inches (15 — 21 cm). This is reduced to 5 —6 inches (12.5 — 15 cm) during summer. The litter should always be kept dry. 
    6. The poultry house equipment such as feeder, waterer, roost, nest box, shell and grit container, etc. should be arranged in specific place of the house. The waterer must be placed near the drainage channel.
    7. The poultry house should have door of 6′ x 3′ size for easy accessible.
     8. The poultry birds should be provided food having vitamin A and D as they do not synthesize vit. D for want of sunlight due to their confinement in the house. 

    Management Of Deep Litter System

    1.The floor of the house should disinfected by phenyl, Lysol, bleaching powder or lime water before placing litter materials. 
    2.The depth of litter should be 6 inch in summer and 8 inch in winter. 
    2.The deep litter should be kept dry. Wet litter in early stages of growth leads to the sporulation of coccidia. Lime or super phosphate L 500 gm lime or 1 kg. Superphosphate per square feet is applied to make the litter dry. 
    3.Cracking of litter should avoided as far as possible by keeping the humidity low and stirring of litter at least once in a week. 
    4.Fresh litter should be used for rearing pullets and new batches of birds should be placed in clean litter. The time of starting deep litter should be in the dry period of the year. 
    5.The old, built up litter should be replaced after the rainy season and beginning of winter season. The litter maybe kept for one year only. 
    6.The waterer should be placed in such a way to keep the litter dry. Leaking of water from waterer or roof, upsets the whole process and it would have to start over again. 

    Advantages Of Deep Litter System

    🔸It provides safety to the birds from natural enemies. 
    🔸Birds can utilizes litter as a source of food.
    🔸It provides protection against various infections disease and external parasites. 
    🔸Labor saving is the one of the really big features of deep litter system. Less labor is involved in collections of and handling of eggs as well as cleaning of house.
    🔸Offers advantages of self control to birds during extreme weather conditions. 

    Site Selection  For Poultry House

    ✔️The house should be made in such place where there is easy access to market to sell meat and eggs and also we can bring feeds to poultry.
    ✔️Poultry farm should be well connected with roads and other modes of transportation having no poultry farm nearby.
    ✔️The poultry farm should locate at a place where electricity and water should be available at reasonable cost and easy. 
    ✔️The poultry farm should have enough space for future expansion.
    ✔️The land where we make poultry house should be at certain height from ground.This also provides good drainage facility.
    ✔️The poultry farm should be located in open space as it provides good ventilation. 

    Housing Requirements For Poultry

    There are certain requirement that need to be addressed while establishing the housing of poultry. These requirements are explained below:-
    1.Floor space 
    Floor space requirements vary according to age, size, breed, type and number of bird to be maintained and method of rearing. 
     It is better to keep the laying birds in small unit of 15 to 20 birds:- number can go upto a maximum limit of 250 birds. 
     The length of house should be in east to west direction which helps to keep the floor dry.
    2. Ventilation
     Ventilation is necessary to provide fresh air and carry off moisture. 
    Fresh air is required to circulate inside the farm- Because it carry away the bad foul smell air and also helps to keep farm free from infections.
    A hen weighing 2 kg and on full fed produces about 52 litre carbondioxide in every 24 hours. Co2 content of expired air is about 3.5 per cent and the total air breathed amounts to 0.5 litre per kg live weight per minute.
    Proper ventilation help to remove this and other undesired gas formed in the poultry house. 
    Hens need a moderate temperature of 50° F. to 70° F. Birds should be protected from extreme heat during summer and extreme cold during winter. 
    The poultry birds need warmer temperature at night, when they are inactive, than during the day. 
    The poultry house should be kept cool during summer and warm during winter as for as possible. 
    The use of insulation with straw pack or other materials keep the house warmer during the winter months and cooler during summer months. 
    The floor and wall of poultry house should be in proper dry condition. The wet floors and walls cause cold in poultry and sometime they may die due to cold. 
    There should be made proper facility of drainage, leakage should  be checked.
    Day light in the house is desirable for the birds. 
    Sunlight in the poultry house is desirable not only because of the destruction of disease germs and supplying vitamins-D but also because it brightens the house and make the birds happy. 
    Light stimulate the chicken’s sexual development and egg production. >The birds remain active and consume more feed and produced more egg or meat if proper light is provided. 
    External parasites such as lice ticks, flies and mites abundant in poultry house and they are the worst enemies of birds. 
    To keep these enemies away and increase our profit we should keep good importance in sanitation.
    7.Availability of labor 
    Labor is one of the most important impute of poultry production. 
    Poultry industry will be profitable if labor is available as and when is needed. 
    Poultry farmers should not be constructed in a place where the availability of labor is problem. 
    8.Social condition 
    Social condition should be taken into consideration before the starting of poultry farm. 
    Thieves and un-social men causes difficulties of smooth running of poultry farm. 
    Poultry farm should not be constructed near religious areas where there is no demand of egg and meat. 
    This is whole information on Housing System Of Poultry-Types And Management.
    If you have any confusion-Do let us in comments.
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