What Is Lumpy Skin Disease?
Lumpy Skin Disease is an infectious viral disease especially seen on cattle which results on sudden fever and nodules on skin which later erupts and undergoes necrosis.
Besides cattles-LSD is also seen on Buffalo, Goat and Sheep. This disease doesn’t transmit on humans.
This disease is preventive if action is taken at early stage. If we neglect it, then – it can be really dangerous and sometime even fatal.
So – Here, In this article, We are going to learn all about lumpy skin disease in cattle, its origin, cause, Symptoms and Preventive measures.
Origin Of Lumpy Skin Disease
This history of LSDV is long. This disease is supposed to be originated from Zambia in 1929.
During that time- Symptoms similar to Lumpy Skin Disease were seen on cattle. But- People don’t pay great attention towards it. They thought- It is all due to Insects bite and food poisoning.
Later- It starts seeing in other countries of Africa. South africa is greatly affected during end time of second world war. During that time-LSD affected nearly 8 million cattles causing great loss to agriculture and economy.
It starts affecting in different countries like Kenya, Somalia and During-1988- It was found in Egypt where it was clinically recognized as Lump Skin Disease.
In current time-LSD is started to seen in some part of Europe and Asia causing huge loss to livestock farming.
The spreading of this disease becomes rapid after 2012 due to virus favourable climatic condition.
Cattle lumpy Skin Disease was first seen in India in 2019 and During the time of 2020- It has started spreading in Nepal and South Asia at rapid pace.
This is all about origin and history of Lumpy Skin Disease. Now- Lets learn about the symptoms and Treatment of LSD.
Causes Of Lumpy Skin Disease In Cattle
Lumpy Skin Disease in cattle is caused by a virus called Lumpy Skin Disease Virus(LSDV) also known by its second name called Neethling Virus.
LSDV is actually a Pox Virus of family Poxviridae which falls under the Genus called Capripoxvirus.
This is the same genus which includes Virus affecting Sheep(Sheeppox) and Goat(Goatpox).
LSDV is host specific(Cattle Only) whereas Sheeppox and Goatpox are not host specific.
Extra Information Related To Lumpy Skin Disease Virus:-
But- Sheepox and Goatpox virus are less dangerous then LSD. LSD causes pain to cattle.
Diagnosis/Symptoms Of Lumpy Skin Disease
The incubation period of LSDV is one week i.e. 7 Days. During this period-No symptoms are seen on cattle.
LSD can cause huge loss to our livestock production. It is occasionally fatal in cattle. So-we must know the symptoms of LSD in order to combat it.Some symptoms shown by cattle are listed below:-
•The very first symptoms is Pyrexia(Fever) raising temperature up to 41°C.
•Numerous cutaneous lesions are seen on skin especially on Head, Neck, Udder, Limbs and Genital area within 15 days.These are raised nodules of (0.5-5)cm in diameter.
•These nodules starts necroting causing small wounds on skin that can persists for months if proper care and treatement is not done.
•In severe case- These nodules also occurs in grastrointestinal-tract, Trachea and Lungs.These nodules are followed by nasal discharge and watery eyes.
•There is gradual drop in milk production followed by body weight loss.
•Cattle can’t walk due to damage and swelling on legs.
•There is a risk of abortion in pregnant cattle.
•Secondary bacterial infection is seen in severe case and recovery of animal becomes difficult.
Note:- People often misrcognized LSD as Pseudo-lumpy skin disease as symptoms of skin nodules are similar. The best way to differentiate is:-
In LSD the skin leisons are seen on most of parts of cattle but In-Pseudo-lumpy skin disease-These are seen only on Teats And Udder of cow.
Transmission Of Lumpy Skin Disease
Lumpy Skin Disease is vector borne disease. The vectors that helps in transmission of LSD are:-
The long distance transmission of this disease is caused by these Arthopod Vectors. Lumpy Skin Disease in cattle can trasmit from infected animals by the means of Nasal Discharge, Saliva and Blood. There is chance of trasmission from Semen also. It is also transmitted by ingestion of contaminated food and water.
There is chance of transmission from direct contact with infected animal.It is transmitted from infected mother animal to calf through milk.It is not transmitted from urine and stool of infected animal.
The transmission of this disease is rapid during warm and wet weather because more insects like mosquitoes are very active in this season.
Prevention From Lumpy Skin Disease In Cattle
There is a famous line called “Prevention Is Better Than Cure”.
Lumpy Skin Disease In Cattle can be kept away from our cattles by different method of prevention. Some of the preventive methods are:-
➡️Most effective way is to restrict the import of animals from infected countries. The animals which are imported should be kept in Quarentine and properly tested.
➡️Different insects like mosquitoes should be effectively controlled using insecticides.
➡️There should be good provision of drainage and channels should me made for the urine also.
➡️The shed of cattle should be cleaned regularly and try to make shed dry.
➡️We should regularly moniter our cattles to detect the symptoms earlier.
➡️Vaccination can be given to healthy animal. The vaccine called “Neethling” which contain the strain of LSD are injected in blood of animal. It is effective to control the LSD.
Treatment Of Cattle Lumpy Skin Disease
➡️There is no specific treatement of Lumpy Skin Disease. Different anti-biotics and supportive therapy are given to infected animals.
➡️The infected animal should be isolated from other herd of animal.
➡️Different skin care medicines can be used to cure the skin wounds. For this-The animals can be cleaned with potash water.
➡️Medicines should be given through vaccines to cure fever and pain in cattle.
➡️To prevent from allergies- Anti Histamine medicine should given through vaccination.
➡️Medicines which increases the immunity of cattle should be given.
➡️Proper and clean feeds should be provided regularly.
➡️Secondary bacterial infection should be prevented.
Note:- All these treatment method should be applied only after the recommendation of Vet-Doctors.
Thus – Lumpy Skin Disease in cattle can sometimes cause huge loss of animal property. It is better to cure this disease at early stage for its ultimate cure and prevention.
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