Pineapple Farming, Cultivation Techniques – A Complete Guide

Pineapple is full of pleasent aroma which taste sweet and sour. It has great health benefits and high market value.So, pineapple Farming is getting popular all over the world.

Pineapple is shrub of family Bromeliaceae. The scientific name of pineapple is Ananas comosus.
The skin of pineapple is rough and prickly and called rind. The pineapple is called so because it looks like pine cone from its outer surface.
We can found vitamin A,B and C(more) along with minerals like calcium, magnesium and Iron along with a digestive enzyme called Bromelian.

The use of pineapple fruit is wide as it can be eaten in fresh,  juices and many other processed form.
In this blog we are going to guide you on Pineapple Farming, Cultivation Techniques – A Complete Guide

    Pineapple Farming

    Pineapple farming is getting popular day by day because of its high market value and easy to do farming business.
    One can shine their life and can maintain good  standard  of living by involving in pineapple farming.
    Pineapple is said have originated from south America. Then, pineapple farming started in Brazil, Prague and now it is cultivated in different parts of the world like Hawaii, Panama, Costa rica, Honduras,  Philippines.
    However, Costa rica is leading in pineapple production followed by Philippines and Brazil.
    There are certain things that one should learn before starting pineapple cultivation. These precious things are discussed below.

    Variety selection

    While starting any farming business, our entire production and profit depends on the variety we selected. Thus, selection of good variety is crucial step one should follow in pineapple farming.
    Pineapple has mainly 2 varieties which gives good production and which are widely cultivated in different parts of the world. They are:-
    Kew-They have long smooth eaf. They weight (2-3)kg. They are ready to harvest in july to September.
    Queen- They have short leaves with thrones. Fruits colour is golden yellow and it taste very good with pleasent smell.They also wight (1-2)kg.
    There are altogether 37 varieties of pineapple which can be cultivated. Some of them are:-
    ✓Giant Kew
    ✓Red Spanish
    ✓Smooth Cayenne
    ✓Brecheche
    ✓Abacaxi
    ✓Mauritius
    ✓Pernambuco
    ✓Antigua Black(Sweetest)

    Climate

    Pineapple is tropical plant i.e Pineapple farming is good in area of decent rainfall along with some hotness.The temperature requirement for pineapple farming is (15-32)°C.
    If the temperature is too low, then the taste of pineapple becomes too sour and if the temperature is too high, then pineapple taste too sweet.
    Pineapple farming can be done up to the altitude of 1400m from sea level and average rainfall requirement is 1500mm per year.

    Soil

    Pineapple farming can be done in wide variety of soil. However, Sandy loam soil rich in nutrients and micro-organisms is considered best for pineapple.Clay soil is bad to do pineapple farming.
    The soil should have good drainge with pH range of (5-6) i.e Slightly acidic.

    Land preparation

    Before starting pineapple farming, selection of good piece of land is necessary.
    Operations like primary and secondary tillage, reclamation of land, levelling of land and making ridges and furrows are done in land preparation.
    It is better to choose plain land instead of sloppy land. The land should be such place where pineapple gets full sunlight during whole day. Sunlight helps to fruit faster in pineapple. We can also do pineapple farming in half shade condition.
    Unwanted materials, large stones, weeds and  other materials which can affect the growth of pineapple tree are removed from site.
    One of the main operation in land preparation is doing layout design of an orchard. We need to make certain map or lines depending on system of planting whether it is Square, Rectangle, Hexagonal or Triagular system. and select spot for planting in doing layout of an orchard.
    Similarly, after finishing layout operation like pit digging should be done in order to plant pineapple tree in that pit.
    For pineapple, we need to make rows. The width of 100 cm should include 2 rows. Then,we need to dig pits in rows where plantation is to be done.
    These all activities of land preparation should be done (1-2)months prior to planting season.

    planting season

    Pineapple is planted during rainy season when there is good humidity. This helps in success of pineapple growth.

    Planting Material

    The pineapple farming can be done by using planting materials like Suckers, Crown, Slip, and tissue culture plant.
    Suckers are new  pineapple plant which grow at the base of  mother plant. Pineapple regrows from suckers and produces fruit. So, we can harvest pineapple multiple time after one plantation.
    Slips are stem of pineapple .Slip supports fruit and crown.
    Crowns are the clusters of thick spiky leaves at the top of fruit. Crown also protect fruit from hot sunlight.
    Pineapple can also be grown from crowns. The fruit is only used for consumption. The lower small leaves of crown should be removed and should make clean until we see white portion.
    After cleaning the base of crown, it should left for dry for 2 days. Then it can be planted.

    Pineapple Farming, Cultivation Techniques - A Complete Guide
    Parts Of Pineapple

    Planting distance and area

    We need to maintain proper planting distance  for pineapple cultivation. There should be proper space for the growth and development of pineapple.
    ✔️Plant-plant Distance=45cm
    ✔️Row-Row Distance=60cm
    Pineapple should be plant at the depth of 15 cm from surface.

    Fertilizers

    During planatation, we need to add fertilizers in soil. We should make mixture of N,P,K Animal manure and Plot soil and fill the pit.
    The quantity of fertilizers to be used in pineapple farming are:-
    ✔️Urea=12gm
    ✔️Phosphorous=4gm
    ✔️Potash=12gm
    This amount of fertilizers are used in only one pit. The same quantity should be added for every plant.
    After plantation:-
    Urea should be applied after every 2 months for 1 years i.e Urea should be applied for 6 times after planting pineapple tree.
    Potassium should be applied in every 6 months for 1 year i.e for 2 times.
    Among all fertilizers, Nitrogen and Potassium has main role in production of pineapple.

    Irrigation


    Pineapple requires less water. So, we don’t need to worry so much about irrigation in pineapple farming.
    We can irrigate two times every 1 month on dry season. Irrigation frequency depends on the climate where pineapple farming is done.

    Harvesting

    The flowering of pineapple starts after (15-18) months of plantation. The fruits of pineapple are ready to harvest after (4-5) months of flowering.
    The flowering in pineapple starts in february to april and fruits can be harvested in july to september.
    Actually In pineapple, the flowers comes at centre of plant surrounded by outer leaves. The number of flowers are about (100-300). These flowers  forms many small berries.
     These berries fuses and forms a single pineapple fruit.
    Harvesting should be done after the ripening of pineapple fruit.
    We can identify if they are ripen or not by observing the change in colour as it turns to golden  yellow and pineapple fruit also spread aroma.
    After first harvest, soil should be added on roots. This will help to get good production in next harvest. The pineapple can be regrown after first harvest as it produces suckers.
    Tip:-To increase the size of pineapple fruit, we need to apply 1ml  Planofix(10ppm) dissolved in 4.5 litre water.


    Similarly, 2-3 gm Napthalene acitc acid (250ppm) dissolved in 10 litre water can be applied.


    These fruit size increasing chemicals should be applied after (1-2) months of fruiting and it helps to increase the size of pineapple fruit by (15-20)%.

    Marketing

    The demand of pineapple is high in market and demand increases in summer as more people consume fruits.
    Pineapple is eaten in fresh condition. People love to drink the juice of pineapple. Many companies also buy pineapple to make processed cans.
    For marketing, pineapples should be harvested when they are 80% riped but to directly eat, pineapple should be 100% riped.

    Storage

    Ripned pineapple cannot be stored for long duration. They should be consumed within (5-6) days of harvest. If we  become unable to sell, then it can be preserved in cold storage at the temperature of (1-5)°C

    Investment And Income

    The investment for pineapple farming in an area of 1 acre is Rs.1.5 Lakhs IC and our income from the same area if everything goes on right way is 3 Lakhs IC.
    So, our profit in pineapple farming is 1.5 lakhs IC on an area of 1 acre.

    Benefits Of Pineapple

    1.Pineapple has many health benefits, some of which are listed below:-
    2.Regular consumption of pineapple helps to cure the problem of Arthritis.
    3.Pineapple is very rich in vitamin-C though it contains vita-A and vita-B also.
    4.Pineapple helps in preventing cancer of mouth, throat and even of breast.
    5.Pineapples improves vision of an eye.
    6.Pineapple has antioxidants which purifys our blood and maintains blood pressure.
    7.Pineapple improves digestion and make our immune system strong.
    8.Pineapple juice helps to lose weight.
    9.Pineapple helps to make our skin beautiful and also prevents pimples.
    10.Pineapple can be eaten during pregnancy. Folic acid in pineapple is good for baby in womb.

    Final verdict

    From all the information we learned, it can be concluded that pineapple is like boon in fruit from all prespective.
    Pineapple farming has lots of potential and government should also encourage farmer to do pineapple cultivation by giving different subsidy as it is easy to grow and climate require for pineapple is found in almost all countries.
    This is whole information on Pineapple Farming, Cultivation Techniques – A Complete Guide.
    If you have any suggestions, do let us know in comments.
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