Definition Of Green Revolution
Green revolution is a technique in Agriculture that collectively uses advanced technologies, High Yielding Varieties(HYV), chemical fertilizers, Soil Management, Disease Control, Pesticide Use, managed irrigation and modern farming methods like Crop rotation, Multiple Cropping which increases crop production to many folds. In short, It is the process of increase in production of food grains.
Some people think the green revolution takes place in past and now it is over. But, This is the wrong concept. Whenever we apply all the above techniques in the field, it will increase the production which can be called as Green Revolution. In this article, We will be mainly focusing on the Advantages And Disadvantages Of Green Revolution.
This revolution initially took place during the 1960s or post WW2 time.
During that time, the whole society was facing the problem of food. Many people were dying of hunger. Also, There were famines like the Bengal Famine. So, People were seeking ideas to increase crop production.
The Green revolution originated from Mexico from where it was adopted worldwide. Dr. Norman E Bourlaug is considered as the father of the Green Revolution. He developed the dwarf variety of Wheat which increased the production of Wheat by manyfold all around the globe. Later, The dwarf and HYV of rice were introduced which aids in solving food problems and helped to ensure global food security.
In India, It was first started by Agriculture Scientist, M.S Swaminathan in Punjab, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu in the year 1966 AD. Later, It was adopted nationwide in the mid-70s to mid-90s. Wheat was a targeted crop. The production of Wheat in India was increased from 0.8 tonnes to 4.8 tonnes [Food Production Was Tripled]. In this way, the Green revolution has contributed in past.
Advantages And Disadvantages Of Green Revolution
Advantages Of Green Revolution
- Reduces the amount of greenhouse gas emissions which has a positive impact on the whole environment.
- Green revolution needs more Fertilizers and Advanced equipment for which many factories are needed which ultimately creates job opportunities.
- It helps to make any country independent on Agriculture Production which will improve the economy.
- More food production over traditional farming methods.
- Reduction of food prices all over the world.
- It prevented all the famines and people were able to get the proper amount of food.
- Offseason farming is possible using greenhouse technology.
- Crops can be produced in adverse weather conditions as it focuses on climate-resilient varieties.
- It helps to reduce deforestation.
- Crops can be produced in a difficult and barren land.
- Another advantage of the green revolution is it allows the harvest of multiple crops in a single year.
Disadvantages Of Green Revolution
- Destruction of original soil structure due to the use of heavy machinery.
- One of the major disadvantages of the Green Revolution is the loss of local crop varieties. People are using HYV and genetically modified varieties in hope of getting more Productivity. Unfortunately, They are forgetting their local cultivars. These local Varieties should be promoted as they are highly nutritious, they improve soil quality.
- Destruction of beneficial soil organisms like Rhizobium and Earthworm.
- Water and Soil Pollution due to uncontrolled use of fertilizers and pesticides.
- The loose topsoil becomes hard due to the residual effect of chemicals.
- Uncontrolled use of pesticides, insecticide, Resistance has developed in different harmful insects.
- Stimulates the formation of sterility of seeds.
- Destruction of beneficial Insects like Bees and Butterflies.
- As the food produced won’t be organic, People suffer from different diseases like Asthma, Allergies and even Cancer.
- The investment cost is high. So, Marginal farmers can’t compete in the market.
Though The green revolution was praised in the 20th century, Later it was highly criticised. The long term effect of using Pesticides, fertilizers, Heavy equipment has harmed agriculture. There is a fear that if we continue to use this technique, Then – Our future generation needs to suffer more. Despite the advantages and disadvantages of the green revolution, the Concept of Sustainable Agriculture is developed.
Sustainable agriculture practices like Zero Tillage, Crop Rotation, Integrated Farming, Multilayer Farming, Organic Farming and Permaculture are getting praised by the world.
Thus – This was whole information on the Advantages And Disadvantages Of Green Revolution.